Term paper on Financer
"Robert Z. Aliber describes international finance as a game between national policymakers and private market participants. National policy makers are charged with managing their home economics and yet they make international commitments, hence the dual objectives causes inconsistencies in national policies, leading to inevitable changes in exchange rate. (Levich, 2001) The private sector perceives the changes in exchange rate as both risk and opportunity for firms and individuals. Another aspect of game described by Robert A. Aliber is the differences in regulatory policies across countries; regulatory differences offer their own incentives private market participants. Some regulatory differences are valuable because they have encouraged financial innovations that improve risk sharing and financial efficiency as well."
"Toyota is exposed to the fluctuation in foreign currency exchange as it operates mainly in America, Continental Europe and Britain. It is therefore affected by the fluctuation in the value of the US dollar, the Euro and to a lesser extent the British pound. Toyota's consolidated financial statements, which are presented in the Japanese yen, are affected by the foreign exchange fluctuation."
"Distinct from the money markets that are markets for short term funds, the market for equities is part of the capital market which refers to the market for long term finance. In general, the capital market can be segmented into 2 parts: the primary market and the secondary market.
A distinction can be seen from these two types of financial market. A primary market is a financial market, which can be categorized as those dealing with financial claims that are newly issued. And those markets for exchanging existing financial claims previously issued are called secondary markets."