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Aviation term paper

"The Infantry School was to prepare, coordinate, and submit to CONARC a draft of a new transport aviation manual concerning combat operations. The Command and General Staff College was to change the Army's keystone manual, FM 100-5 Operations, to incorporate the new concept. It was also to produce a new transport aviation manual concerning logistical support operations. The Army Aviation School was responsible for a new manual covering the organization and operation of Army aviation transport units. The Chief of Transportation was responsible for a new manual covering the organization and operation of maintenance and supply units in support of Army aviation. By June 1955 the Infantry School completed and circulated the new draft manual, FM 57-35, Army Transport Aviation Combat Operations. This was a significant milestone as the difficulty of executing an air mobile operation without a proper tactical manual was apparent during an exercise in May 1954. By this time tactical air mobility also became a more common part of Army exercises. General Gavin inspired and urged the inclusion of a sky cavalry experiment in the 1955 Exercise SAGE BRUSH. During Exercise BLUE BOLT ( February 1955) conducted at Fort Hood, the 1st Armored Division made use of seven H-19 helicopters to perform tactical operations. The division inserted small detachments behind "Aggressor" lines to observe and report enemy movements. It also landed a small raiding party behind enemy lines and attacked a command post."

"During World War II the primary mission of fighters was to either kill or protect bombers. The fact that fighters also proved in certain circumstances to be excellent ground-attack planes were as an unexpected but welcome bonus. Regardless of whether the pilot's immediate job was to protect or destroy bombers, enemy fighters usually constituted his greatest obstacle to success and the greatest threat to his personal survival. Consequently, in practice, fighter pilots had to face the hazardous and complex job of destroying other fighters. Battle tactics and weaponry are always related. However, the fighters of 1942 and the support technologies had evolved so quickly that pilots had little precedent to guide the development of a coherent set of battle tactics. On one level ample experience existed: During World War I pilots on the Western Front fought a massive war that included fighter melees that in 1918 matched in size large engagements that took place during World War II. Yet in some respects the important lessons of World War I were forgotten, not analyzed, and consequently not refined. For instance in World War I there was no effective communication between aircraft other than hand signals and aircraft gyrations. Yet flight leaders realized it was vital to approach the enemy from an advantageous position. Indeed squadron commanders in 1918 looked for the same edges as a later generation would: altitude, surprise, and concentration of force. Consequently all of the air forces developed increasingly sophisticated flight formations. Once the point of contact was reached, however, it was every man for himself. When the dogfight started, a cool head, marksmanship, and flying ability counted for everything."

"Air transportation is what economists sometimes call an intermediate good (and the demand for it a derived demand), in the sense that most people use air transportation as a means to achieve some other purpose. Very few passengers fly merely for the sake of flying. Consequently, when trying to estimate passenger demand, it is necessary to go into all the various reasons that make a destination city attractive. Tourists flying to Hawaii have as their objective the happy vacation they expect to spend there; the air trip is largely or entirely a means to this objective. Business travelers have as their objective the business they are going to discuss or transact at the destination; their air trip also is largely or entirely a means to this end. Passengers can be divided into categories by looking at the purpose of their trip. Typically the simplest of the divisions is into tourist or business travel, the latter including government travel. Another category would be personal or family emergency travel. And there is always a "miscellaneous" or "other" category, which would include someone traveling to a new job or to attend college, for example.

For each of these groups an airline will try to work out the elasticity of demand. Actually there are two elasticities involved: the price elasticity of demand and the income elasticity of demand. In economics the term elasticity of demand is assumed to refer to price elasticity. That is, what is the sensitivity of the public to the price of a product? As the price is lowered, how much more will they buy? How much less as the price is raised? But the other type of demand elasticity is particularly important to air transportation, especially with respect to the tourist market."

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