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Psychology term term paper

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"Altruism as defined by most people in most circumstances, involves being helpful to someone else, at personal cost (of time, trouble, discomfort, or valuables). However, a part of the definition that is in dispute is whether psychologists should also expect there to be an absence of personal gain in order for them to call an example of helpfulness, altruism in fact, this is one of the issues that motivates much of the research. Can we identify situations in which people are helpful without even covert types of gain? If covert gain is present, what is its nature? The operational definitions of altruism used in research tend to confine themselves to helpfulness to others at some personal cost, with no overt payment or gain."
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"Freud distinguished in jokes a certain technique and a certain tendency. He found techniques of condensation, displacement, expression of an idea by the contrary, and so on, similar to those of the dream work. In regard to the tendencies, Freud distinguished harmless jokes, w hose pleasure came only from the technique, and the tendentious, whose mainsprings were either aggressiveness or obscenity, or both. Obscene jokes imply the presence of at least three persons, the joker, the subject, and a spectator. They mentally express the desire to strip or seduce. Jokes are enjoyed both because of the tendencies and the techniques. The tendentious jokes also help us to tolerate repressed needs by allowing a socially acceptable way of giving vent to them. The two main differences Freud found between dreams and jokes were that dreams express wish fulfillment and jokes satisfy the pleasure of play; dreams are a regression from the level of language to thinking in pictures, but in jokes the regression is from logical language to play language (the lucid function of language in which young children find so much pleasure)."
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"Bleuler's concept of schizophrenia was not only a new theory but, it had in itself a therapeutic implication. Bleuler introduced the optimistic notion that schizophrenia would be stopped or regressed at any stage of its evolution and, at a time when physiological and pharmacological treatment methods did not exist, he used a number of devices, which, sometimes produced miraculous effects. He would, for instance, resort to the early discharge of apparently severely ill patients or to a sudden and unexpected transfer to another ward, or assign a responsibility to the patient. He also organized a system of work therapy and arranged the leisure time of his patients as well as the functioning of a human community in the mental hospital."
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