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US History term paper

"The threat of a "massive retaliation" was the first US nuclear deterrence policy, created under Eisenhower"s administration, which quickly became obsolete. In the 1960"s, Kennedy was demanding that the US have the ability to make quick responses, which could mean the difference between victory and defeat in the numerous military situations the USSR could create in which nuclear weaponry was not an option" The "Flexible Response" policy prepared the US with specific countermeasures for distinct confrontations. The army became the new focus of military expansion and advancement, with increased funding and recruitment (Chant 9). By 1964, the US had begun surveillance of the North Vietnamese coast, and was supporting South Vietnam"s commando missions, destroying bridges, railroads, and coastal installations, throughout North Vietnam (Encarta "Vietnam War"). After Lyndon B. Johnson ordered the bombing of the Ho Chi Minh trail, the Viet Cong began recruiting and organizing and army to face a full-scale US military intervention (Encarta "Vietnam War"). Just like in Korea, Vietnam became the newest stage for a competition in military superiority with the Communist world."

"Seeking to carry out Roosevelt's policies, Truman brought to fruition the plans for the unconditional surrender of Germany, which came on May 8, 1945 and the establishment of the United Nations. He attended the UN founding conference in San Francisco in late April. Truman made the decision to use atomic bombs against Japan, believing that they would end the war quickly, save lives, and place the United States in a position to revolutionize Japanese life. Two bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, coupled with Russia's declaration of war against Japan, brought the war to an end on August 14, 1945.

Some persons have argued that Truman used the bomb to influence the Russians rather than the Japanese, but they have demonstrated only that he and some of his aides hoped that this new evidence of American power would restrain the Russians at the same time that it accomplished American objectives in Japan. By August 1945, Truman had become more critical of the Russians than Roosevelt had been."

"The highlight of his speech was the surprising argument he threw at Lincoln in the form of the Springfield Resolutions of 1854. Douglas quoted the radical "Codding" and declared that Lincoln joined with abolitionists Giddings, Chase, Fred Douglass, and "Parson" Lovejoy had constructed this platform for the new Black Republican Party of Illinois. Douglas became so engrossed in the speech he had to be reminded of his time limit.

When Lincoln replied, he had no choice but to defend himself against the accusations. As Lincoln continued to debate, he displayed his ability as a rough-and-tumble debater, which had caused Douglas to say that he would have his hands full with Old Abe. He refuted Douglas" accusations that he favored social and political equality with the Negro. Lincoln also attacked Douglas" sensitive past history as a judge. Lincoln finished well within his time.

Douglas quickly went on attack. Once again, he brought up the Black Republican Party and Lincoln"s connection to it. He argued that Lincoln did not deny being a part of that party. He talked of the Springfield convention and reminded Lincoln of his whereabouts on that day."

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